Research on Salicylate Sensitivity
For every article referenced I tried my very best to track down the open-sourced full text pdf to post. If only an abstract is linked, I am unable to post the full text article for you for copyright reasons. However, I likely have it in my personal collection. Please feel free to contact me (form at bottom) if you have a question about an article. I will be doing my best to talk about research articles on YouTube, especially when the full-text is unavailable for the public. Many scientists don't mind if you contact them directly (find their lab, clinic, or university) and ask them for the full article. They often have the ability to send it to you. I am adding to this list weekly. Oh, and by the way, I don't think one should have to pay for information, but that's another conversation for another day.
These resources below were probably some of the most important when I first got started.
- Food can make you ill: http://www.foodcanmakeyouill.co.uk/salicylate-in-food.html
- Feingold.org: http://www.feingold.org/sas.html
- Royal Prince Alfred Hospital (RPAH) elimination diet and charts:https://www.slhd.nsw.gov.au/rpa/allergy/resources/foodintol/handbook.html
- Fedup Australia: https://www.fedup.com.au/factsheets/additive-and-natural-chemical-factsheets/salicylates Covers other chemical sensitivities (Amines, sulphites, etc and how to do an eliminiation diet to figure out which ones you're sensitive to).
- AAAAI: American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology: https://www.aaaai.org
- Food Intolerance Network: https://www.food-intolerance-network.com Useful information about lactose intolerance, fructose malabsorption, histamine intolerance, gluten intolerance or coeliac disease, and much more.
Tested Foods - Research Studies Testing Levels of Salicylates
- Malakar S, Gibson P R, Barrett J, Muir J G. Naturally occurring dietary salicylates: A closer look at common Australian foods. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 2017; 57:31-39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2016.12.008. View full pdf at: https://www.fedup.com.au/images/stories/Malakarsalicylate2017.pdf.
- Swain AR, Dutton SP, Truswell AS. Salicylates in foods. J Am Diet Assoc. 1985;85(8):950–960. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/4019987. View full pdf at: https://www.slhd.nsw.gov.au/rpa/allergy/research/salicylatesinfoods.pdf
- Kęszycka PK, Szkop M, Gajewska D. Overall Content of Salicylic Acid and Salicylates in Food Available on the European Market. J Agric Food Chem. 2017;65(50):11085-11091. doi:10.1021/acs.jafc.7b04313
- Wood A, Baxter G, Thies F, Kyle J, Duthie G. A systematic review of salicylates in foods: estimated daily intake of a Scottish population. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2011;55 Suppl 1:S7–S14. doi:10.1002/mnfr.201000408. View abstract: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21351247/.
Identified that salicylates are found in alcoholic drinks, herbs and spices, fruit, juices, tomato based sauces and vegetables. Provides the levels of salicylic acid found in each food tested.
- Scotter MJ, Roberts DP., Wilson LA, Howard FA., Davis J, Mansell N. Free salicylic acid and acetyl salicylic acid content of foods using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Food Chemistry. 2007;105(1):273-279. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.03.007
- Venema, D P, Hollman, P C, Janssen, K P, Katan, M B. Determination of acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid in foods, using HPLC with fluorescence detection. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 1996; 44(7):1782–1787. Read abstract at: https://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/jf950458y.
- Robertson, G and Kermode, W. Salicylic acid in fresh and canned fruit and vegetables. Journal of Science and Food and Agriculture. 1981; 32: 833-836. doi:10.1002/jsfa.2740320813. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/jsfa.2740320813.
- Edyta Protasiuk, Małgorzata Olejnik. Residues of salicylic acid and its metabolites in hen plasma, tissues and eggs as a result of animal treatment and consumption of naturally occurring salicylates. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A 2020, 51 , 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2020.1744740
- Skypala IJ, Williams M, Reeves L, Meyer R, Venter C. Sensitivity to food additives, vaso-active amines and salicylates: a review of the evidence. Clin Transl Allergy. 2015;5:34. Published 2015 Oct 13. doi:10.1186/s13601-015-0078-3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4604636/pdf/13601_2015_Article_78.pdf
Research articles supporting that salicylates (including other food chemicals) may negatively impact health
General poor symptoms
- Baenkler HW. Salicylate intolerance: pathophysiology, clinical spectrum, diagnosis and treatment. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2008;105(8):137–142. doi:10.3238/arztebl.2008.0137. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2696737.
- George, R et al. Frequency of reactions to foods containing natural salicylates in aspirin sensitive patients. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2000; 105(1):S135. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0091-6749(00)90837-6. Read conference summary: https://www.jacionline.org/action/showPdf?pii=S0091-6749%2800%2990837-6.
44% of patients screened who have had hives or asthma from aspirin reaction also declare sensitivity to foods high in natural salicylates (natural aspirin compounds). Symptoms manifest as respiratory issues, urticaria (hives and skin issues), Oral Allergy Syndrome, throat swelling, flushing, and general feeling of being unwell. Many patients reacted to more than just one food. This is a conference summary/feasibility study to launch more research.
- Skypala IJ, Williams M, Reeves L, Meyer R, Venter C. Sensitivity to food additives, vaso-active amines and salicylates: a review of the evidence. Clin Transl Allergy. 2015;5:34. Published 2015 Oct 13. doi:10.1186/s13601-015-0078-3 Full text at: https://ctajournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13601-015-0078-3
- Baenkler HW. Salicylate intolerance: pathophysiology, clinical spectrum, diagnosis and treatment. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2008;105(8):137-142. doi:10.3238/arztebl.2008.0137 Full text: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2696737. Estimates that
- Laura Maintz, Natalija Novak, Histamine and histamine intolerance, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 85, Issue 5, May 2007, Pages 1185–1196, https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/85.5.1185. Full text article: https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/85/5/1185/4633007
- Hodge L, Yan KY, Loblay RL. Assessment of food chemical intolerance in adult asthmatic subjects. Thorax. 1996;51(8):805–809. doi:10.1136/thx.51.8.805. Full article: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC472547/?tool=pubmed.
Identification of food chemical intolerance in asthmatic subjects can be reliably assessed by changes in the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). Strict dietary elimination prior to testing and then measurement of FEV1 after double blind food chemical challenge remains the most reliable method for the detection of food chemical intolerance in asthmatic subjects. Chemicals test included: metabisulphite, aspirin, monosodium glutamate, artificial food colours, and sodium nitrite/ nitrate.
- Park HS, Lim YS, Suh JE, Rhu NS, Cho DI, Kim JW. Sodium salicylate sensitivity in an asthmatic patient with aspirin sensitivity. J Korean Med Sci. 1991;6(2):113‐117. doi:10.3346/jkms.1918.104.22.168. Read article: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3049690/pdf/1751016.pdf.
Digestion (unrelated to gluten-sensitivity)
- Malakar S. Bioactive food chemicals and gastrointestinal symptoms: a focus of salicylates. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017;32 Suppl 1:73-77. doi:10.1111/jgh.13702
- Sivagnanam P, Koutsoumpas A, Forbes A. Respiratory symptoms in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and the impact of dietary salicylates. Dig Liver Dis. 2007;39(3):232–239. doi:10.1016/j.dld.2006.08.001. View abstract at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16979961.
- Stein, Herbert L. MD (Retired) Annatto and IBS, Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology: November-December 2009 - Volume 43 - Issue 10 - p 1014-1015 doi: 10.1097/MCG.0b013e3181ae4e1b https://journals.lww.com/jcge/fulltext/2009/11000/annatto_and_ibs.27.aspx
- Wife had IBS for 40 years and after a trip to Europe with no symptoms they figured out it was annatto in her foods.
- Marlene Stein's video she made: https://youtu.be/nguk5ca8rfc
- Raithel M, Baenkler HW, Naegel A, et al. Significance of salicylate intolerance in diseases of the lower gastrointestinal tract. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2005;56 Suppl 5:89-102. Full text article: http://www.eaaci.org/attachments/9c%20-%20raithelSalicylINT.pdf
- Faulkner-Hogg KB, Selby WS, Loblay RH. Dietary analysis in symptomatic patients with coeliac disease on a gluten-free diet: the role of trace amounts of gluten and non-gluten food intolerances. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1999;34(8):784–789. doi:10.1080/003655299750025714. Read abstract: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10499479.
31 Celiac Disease patients with continued GI symptoms while following a strict gluten-free diet, participated in an open and double blind study by going on a strict food chemical elimination diet. 77% (24 participants) had improvement in their symptoms and they discovered that amines, salicylates, and soy provoked their symptoms.
Skin issues including hives (urticaria)
- Thune P, Granholt A. Provocation tests with antiphlogistica and food additives in recurrent urticaria. Dermatologica. 1975;151(6):360‐367. doi:10.1159/000251361. Abstract from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1228011/
100 patients (53 women, 47 men) suffering from recurrent urticaria were tested with different food additives such as 8 dye additives, 7 preservatives and 7 antiphlogistica. In total did 62 patients react with urticaria and/or angio-oedema.
- Ros AM, Juhlin L, Michaëlsson G. A follow-up study of patients with recurrent urticaria and hypersensitivity to aspirin, benzoates and azo dyes. Br J Dermatol. 1976;95(1):19‐24. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2133.1976.tb15532.x. View Abstract: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/952737.
We have studied seventy-five patients with recurrent urticaria and angio-oedema of more than 4 months duration and with positive provocation tests to aspirin, azo dyes, and/or benzoates. Cross-reactions between the test compounds were common. The patients were recommended to be on a diet free from salicylates, benzoates, and azo dyes. They were then followed for 6-24 months. At the follow-up, 24% were free from symptoms, 57% considered themselves much better and 19% stated that they were slightly better or unchanged. All patients had followed the diet for at least 1-3 months. Most of those who became totally free of symptoms did not continue with the diet, while most of the patients who considered themselves much better found that it was necessary to continue on the recommended diet. They usually developed symptoms as soon as they ingested something containing azo dyes or benzoates.
- Juhlin L, Michaëlsson G, and Zetterström O. Urticaria and asthma induced by food-and-drug additives in patients with aspirin hypersensitivity. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 1972; 50(2): 92-98. ISSN 0091-6749. doi: 10.1016/0091-6749(72)90004-8. Read abstract: https://www.jacionline.org/article/0091-6749(72)90004-8/abstract
Seven of 8 recently investigated aspirin-sensitive patients reacted with asthma, urticaria, or both after 1 to 2 mg. of the azobenzene dye, tartrazine. Tartrazine is commonly used as a food and drug color and a daily intake of several milligrams is possible. The patients also reacted to some benzoic acid derivatives. All of these food-and-drug additives may be difficult to avoid. It is important, therefore, that they are properly identified since they are dangerous for certain patients with asthma and urticaria.
Anderson J. Food-chemical intolerance in the breastfed infant. Breastfeed Rev. 2013;21(1):17–20. Read abstract: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23600324.
The investigation of adverse food reactions can be complex and ideally should be guided and monitored by a dietitian experienced in the field. Maternal elimination diets require high motivation and must include all important nutrients.
Studies that promote hope for healing and treatments - please check with your doctor!
What can you consume?
- Cruz L, Castañeda-Hernández G, Navarrete A. Ingestion of chilli pepper (Capsicum annuum) reduces salicylate bioavailability after oral asprin administration in the rat. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1999;77(6):441-446. View abstract: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10537230/
Broaded Studies that can include Salicylates
Also see Chemical Sensitivity since most of these overlap.
- Steinemann, Anne. Ten questions concerning fragrance-free policies and indoor environments. Building and Environment, Volume 159, 2019, 106054. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2019.03.052.
Full pdf from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360132319302148.
Indoor air quality is an international concern, linked with adverse effects on health and productivity. A common source of indoor air pollutants is fragranced consumer products, such as air fresheners, cleaning supplies, and personal care products. Exposure to fragranced products has been associated with health problems, such as breathing difficulties and migraine headaches, as well as lost workdays and loss of access in society. This paper presents and answers ten questions to explore fragrance-free policies within indoor built environments. Using a set of 60 fragrance-free policies, it analyzes who, what, where, when, why, and how policies are implemented. It then examines potential benefits of fragrance-free policies, such as avoided costs from illness and lost workdays, as well as challenges. The paper concludes with guidance and research directions for the future.
- Steinemann, A. International prevalence of fragrance sensitivity. Air Qual Atmos Health 12, 891–897 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11869-019-00699-4. Full pdf from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11869-019-00699-4.
This study investigates effects of fragranced consumer products on the general population in four countries: United States, Australia, United Kingdom, and Sweden. Nationally representative population surveys (n = 1137; 1098; 1100; 1100) found that, across the four countries, 32.2% of adults (34.7%, 33.0%, 27.8%, 33.1% respectively) report fragrance sensitivity; that is, adverse health effects from fragranced consumer products. For instance, 17.4% report health problems from air fresheners or deodorizers, and 15.7% from being in a room cleaned with scented products. Commonly reported health problems include respiratory difficulties (16.7%), mucosal symptoms (13.2%), migraine headaches (12.6%), skin rashes (9.1%), and asthma attacks (7.0%). For 9.5% of the population, the severity of health effects can be considered disabling. Further, 9.0% of the population have lost workdays or lost a job, in the past year, due to illness from fragranced product exposure in the workplace. Personal estimated costs due to these lost workdays and lost jobs, across the four countries in one year, exceed $146 billion (USD). A majority of people across the countries would prefer that workplaces, health care facilities and professionals, hotels, and airplanes were fragrance-free rather than fragranced. The study highlights a concern for public health and societal well-being, as well as an approach to reduce risks and costs: reduce exposure to fragranced products.
- Steinemann, A., Nematollahi, N., Rismanchi, B. et al. Pandemic products and volatile chemical emissions. Air Qual Atmos Health (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11869-020-00912-9. Full pdf available at: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11869-020-00912-9.
The recent pandemic (COVID-19) has seen a sweeping and surging use of products intended to clean and disinfect, such as air sprays, hand sanitizers, and surface cleaners, many of which contain fragrance. However, exposure to fragranced cleaning products has been associated with adverse effects on human health. Products can emit a range of volatile chemicals, including some classified as hazardous, but relatively few ingredients are disclosed to the public. Thus, relatively little is known about the specific emissions from these products. This study investigates the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from “pandemic products” that are being used frequently and extensively in society. In addition, among these emissions, this study identifies potentially hazardous compounds, compares so-called green and regular versions of products, and examines whether ingredients are disclosed to the public. All products emitted potentially hazardous compounds. Comparing regular products and green products, no significant difference was found in the emissions of the most prevalent compounds. Further, among the 399 compounds emitted, only 4% of all VOCs and 11% of potentially hazardous VOCs were disclosed on any product label or safety data sheet. This study reveals that pandemic products can generate volatile emissions that could pose risks to health, that could be unrecognized, and that could be reduced, such as by using fragrance-free versions of products.
- Steinemann, A. The fragranced products phenomenon: air quality and health, science and policy. Air Qual Atmos Health (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11869-020-00928-1. Full pdf available at: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11869-020-00928-1.
This paper examines the issue of fragranced consumer products and its science and policy dimensions, with a focus on the implications for air quality and human health. Results include new findings and new questions for future research directions.
- Steinemann, A. International prevalence of chemical sensitivity, co-prevalences with asthma and autism, and effects from fragranced consumer products. Air Qual Atmos Health 12, 519–527 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11869-019-00672-1. Full pdf from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11869-019-00672-1.
This study investigated the prevalence of chemical sensitivity in four countries—the United States (US), Australia (AU), Sweden (SE), and the United Kingdom (UK). In addition, it investigated the co-prevalence of chemical sensitivity with medically diagnosed multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS), fragrance sensitivity (health problems from fragranced products), asthma/asthma-like conditions, and autism/autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Results found that, across the four countries, 19.9% of the population report chemical sensitivity, 7.4% report medically diagnosed MCS, 21.2% report either or both, and 32.2% report fragrance sensitivity. In addition, 26.0% of the population report asthma/asthma-like conditions, of which 42.6% report chemical sensitivity and 57.8% fragrance sensitivity. Also, 4.5% of the population report autism/ASDs, of which 60.6% report chemical sensitivity and 75.8% fragrance sensitivity. Among individuals with chemical sensitivity, 55.4% also report asthma/asthma-like conditions, 13.5% autism/ASDs, and 82.0% fragrance sensitivity. Although the prevalence of chemical sensitivity across the countries is statistically different, its co-prevalences with other conditions are statistically similar. Results also found that, for 44.1% of individuals with chemical sensitivity, the severity of health effects from fragranced products can be potentially disabling. Further, 28.6% of those with chemical sensitivity have lost workdays or a job, in the past year, due to exposure to fragranced products in the workplace. Results indicate that chemical sensitivity is widespread across the four countries, affecting over 61 million people, that vulnerable individuals such as those with asthma and autism are especially affected, and that fragranced consumer products can contribute to the adverse health, economic, and societal effects.
- Steinemann, A., Nematollahi, N. Migraine headaches and fragranced consumer products: an international population-based study. Air Qual Atmos Health 13, 387–390 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11869-020-00807-9. Read abstract: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11869-020-00807-9.
Fragranced consumer products, such as air fresheners and cleaning supplies, have been associated with health problems including migraine headaches. This study investigates the prevalence of migraines associated with exposure to fragranced products. Nationally representative population surveys (n = 4435) across four countries—the United States (US), Australia (AU), the United Kingdom (UK), and Sweden (SE)—found that, on average, 12.6% of adults report migraine headaches when exposed to fragranced products (15.7% US, 10.0% AU, 8.4% UK, 16.1% SE). Among those individuals, 43.2% report migraines from air fresheners or deodorizers, 15.0% from the scent of laundry products coming from a dryer vent, 39.9% from being in a room cleaned with scented products, 53.7% from being near someone wearing a fragranced product, and 45.7% from other types of fragranced products. Furthermore, 30.6% of these individuals have lost workdays or lost a job, in the past year, due to fragranced product exposure in the workplace. Findings from this study indicate that migraine headaches can be associated with fragranced consumer products, and that reducing exposure could reduce adverse health and societal effects.
- Steinemann, A., Goodman, N. Fragranced consumer products and effects on asthmatics: an international population-based study. Air Qual Atmos Health 12, 643–649 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11869-019-00693-w. Read full article: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11869-019-00693-w.
This study investigates the health and societal effects of fragranced products on asthmatics in four countries: United States, Australia, United Kingdom, and Sweden. Nationally representative population surveys (n = 1137; 1098; 1100; 1100) found that, across the four countries, 26.0% of adults (n = 1151) are asthmatic, reporting medically diagnosed asthma (15.8%), an asthma-like condition (11.1%), or both. Among these asthmatics, 57.8% report adverse health effects, including asthma attacks (25.0%), respiratory problems (37.7%), and migraine headaches (22.6%), from exposure to fragranced products. In particular, 36.7% of asthmatics report health problems from air fresheners or deodorizers, 18.1% from the scent of laundry products coming from a dryer vent, 32.9% from being in a room cleaned with scented products, 38.7% from being near someone wearing a fragranced product, and 37.5% from other types of fragranced products. For 24.1% of asthmatics, health problems from fragranced products are potentially disabling. Further, 20.6% of asthmatics have lost workdays or lost a job, in the past year, due to fragranced product exposure in the workplace. Fragrance-free environments received widespread support. More than twice as many individuals, both asthmatics as well as non-asthmatics, would prefer that workplaces, health care facilities and professionals, airplanes, and hotels were fragrance-free rather than fragranced. This study provides evidence that asthmatics can be profoundly, adversely, and disproportionately affected by exposure to fragranced consumer products. Moreover, the study points to a relatively straightforward and cost-effective approach to reduce risks; namely, to reduce exposure to fragranced products.
- Steinemann, A. Fragranced consumer products: effects on asthmatics. Air Qual Atmos Health 11, 3–9 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11869-017-0536-2. Full pdf available at: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11869-017-0536-2.
This study investigates the prevalence and types of effects of fragranced products on asthmatics in the American population. Using a nationally representative sample (n = 1137), data were collected with an on-line survey of adults in the USA, of which 26.8% responded as being medically diagnosed with asthma or an asthma-like condition. Results indicate that 64.3% of asthmatics report one or more types of adverse health effects from fragranced products, including respiratory problems (43.3%), migraine headaches (28.2%), and asthma attacks (27.9%). Overall, asthmatics were more likely to experience adverse health effects from fragranced products than non-asthmatics (prevalence odds ratio [POR] 5.76; 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.34–7.64). In particular, 41.0% of asthmatics report health problems from air fresheners or deodorizers, 28.9% from scented laundry products coming from a dryer vent, 42.3% from being in a room cleaned with scented products, and 46.2% from being near someone wearing a fragranced product. Of these effects, 62.8% would be considered disabling under the definition of the Americans with Disabilities Act. Yet 99.3% of asthmatics are exposed to fragranced products at least once a week. Also, 36.7% cannot use a public restroom if it has an air freshener or deodorizer, and 39.7% would enter a business but then leave as quickly as possible due to air fresheners or some fragranced product. Further, 35.4% of asthmatics have lost workdays or a job, in the past year, due to fragranced product exposure in the workplace.
- Steinemann, A., Wheeler, A.J. & Larcombe, A. Fragranced consumer products: effects on asthmatic Australians. Air Qual Atmos Health 11, 365–371 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11869-018-0560-x. View full pdf at: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11869-018-0560-x.
This study investigated the prevalence and types of health problems associated with exposure to fragranced products among asthmatic Australians. Nationally representative cross-sectional data were obtained in June 2016 with an online survey of adult Australians (n = 1098), of which 28.5% were medically diagnosed with asthma or an asthma-like condition. Nationally, 55.6% of asthmatics, and 23.9% of non-asthmatics, report adverse health effects after exposure to fragranced products. Specifically, 24.0% of asthmatics report an asthma attack. Moreover, 18.2% of asthmatics lost workdays or a job in the past year due to fragranced products in the workplace. Over 20% of asthmatics are unable to access public places and restrooms that use air fresheners. Exposure to fragranced products is associated with health problems, some potentially serious, in an estimated 2.2 million asthmatic adult Australians. Asthmatics were proportionately more affected than non-asthmatics (prevalence odds ratio 3.98; 95% confidence interval 3.01–5.24).
- Steinemann, A. Fragranced consumer products: effects on autistic adults in the United States, Australia, and United Kingdom. Air Qual Atmos Health 11, 1137–1142 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11869-018-0625-x. Full pdf article available at: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11869-018-0625-x.
This study investigates the effects of fragranced products on autistic individuals ages 18–65 in the United States, Australia, and United Kingdom. Nationally representative population surveys (n = 1137; 1098; 1100) found that, across the three countries, 4.3% of adults (n = 142) report medically diagnosed autism (2.3%), an autism spectrum disorder (2.4%), or both. Of these autistic adults, 83.7% report adverse health effects from fragranced products, including migraine headaches (42.9%), neurological problems (34.3%), respiratory problems (44.7%), and asthma attacks (35.9%). In particular, 62.9% of autistic adults report health problems from air fresheners or deodorizers, 57.5% from the scent of laundry products coming from a dryer vent, 65.9% from being in a room cleaned with scented products, and 60.5% from being near someone wearing a fragranced product. Health problems can be severe, with 74.1% of these effects considered potentially disabling under legislation in each country. Further, 59.4% of autistic adults have lost workdays or lost a job, in the past year, due to fragranced product exposure in the workplace.
- Wood Toxicity and How to Protect Yourself - https://www.woodworkerssource.com/blog/wood-conversations/wood-toxicity-and-how-to-protect-yourself This article talks about many different ways wood can make people sick, including a statement about birch and willows triggering aspirin allergy. Not original research, but important information.
- One of my sickest days was while sitting at a camp fire burning birch wood and bark - long before I knew I had a salicylate issue.
- Steinemann, Anne. National Prevalence and Effects of Multiple Chemical Sensitivities, Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine: March 2018 - Volume 60 - Issue 3 - p e152-e156
doi: 10.1097/JOM.0000000000001272. Full pdf available from: https://journals.lww.com/joem/Fulltext/2018/03000/National_Prevalence_and_Effects_of_Multiple.17.aspx.
The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS), its co-occurrence with asthma and fragrance sensitivity, and effects from exposure to fragranced consumer products. Among the population, 12.8% report medically diagnosed MCS and 25.9% report chemical sensitivity. Of those with MCS, 86.2% experience health problems, such as migraine headaches, when exposed to fragranced consumer products; 71.0% are asthmatic; 70.3% cannot access places that use fragranced products such as air fresheners; and 60.7% lost workdays or a job in the past year due to fragranced products in the workplace. Prevalence of diagnosed MCS has increased over 300%, and self-reported chemical sensitivity over 200%, in the past decade. Reducing exposure to fragranced products could help reduce adverse health and societal effects.
- Anne Steinemann. Prevalence and effects of multiple chemical sensitivities in Australia, Preventive Medicine Reports: Volume 10, 2018, Pages 191-194, ISSN 2211-3355, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2018.03.007. Full pdf available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2211335518300457.
The aims of this study are to assess the prevalence of MCS, its overlaps with asthma and fragrance sensitivity, and its health and societal effects in Australia. Data were collected in June 2016 using an on-line survey with a representative national sample (N = 1098) of adults (ages 18–65) in Australia. Results found that, across the country, 6.5% report medically diagnosed MCS, 18.9% report chemical sensitivity (being unusually sensitive to everyday chemicals and chemically formulated products), and 19.9% either or both. Among people with MCS, 74.6% also have diagnosed asthma or an asthma-like condition, and 91.5% have fragrance sensitivity, reporting health problems (such as migraine headaches) when exposed to fragranced consumer products (such as air fresheners and cleaning supplies). In addition, among people with MCS, 77.5% are prevented from access to places because of fragranced products, 52.1% lost workdays or a job in the past year due to fragranced product exposure in the workplace, and 55.4% report health effects considered potentially disabling. Results indicate that MCS is a widespread disease, affecting an estimated 1 million adult Australians, with chemical sensitivity affecting another 2 million. Reducing chemical exposure to problematic sources, such as fragranced consumer products, is critical to reduce adverse effects.
- Steinemann, A. Chemical sensitivity, asthma, and effects from fragranced consumer products: National Population Study in the United Kingdom. Air Qual Atmos Health 12, 371–377 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11869-018-00655-8. Read full abstract at: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11869-019-00672-1.
This national study in the United Kingdom (UK) investigated the prevalence of chemical sensitivity, a condition associated with chemical pollutant exposures, and the medical diagnosis of multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS). In addition, it investigated the co-occurrence of chemical sensitivity with asthma and asthma-like conditions, and with fragrance sensitivity (adverse health effects from fragranced consumer products). Results indicate that chemical sensitivity is widespread in the UK, affecting over 5.7 million adults, with over 2.3 million diagnosed MCS, 8.9 million asthmatics, and 9.8 million fragrance sensitive. Reducing chemical exposure to problematic sources, such as fragranced consumer products, is a critical step to reduce adverse health and societal effects.
- Steinemann, A. Chemical sensitivity, asthma, and effects from fragranced consumer products: national population study in Sweden. Air Qual Atmos Health 12, 129–136 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11869-018-0640-y. Read full abstract from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11869-018-0640-y.
Common chemical products and pollutants—such as pesticides, solvents, new building materials, and fragranced consumer products—have been associated with adverse health and societal effects. For some, the effects can be severe and disabling. This national population study in Sweden examined the prevalence and effects of chemical sensitivity, a condition characterized by health problems from chemical pollutant exposures. In addition, it examined the prevalence of medically diagnosed multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS), and the co-occurrence of chemical sensitivity with asthma and asthma-like conditions, and with fragrance sensitivity (health problems from fragranced consumer products). Results indicate that chemical sensitivity is a widespread condition, affecting more than 1 million adults in Sweden, with fragrance sensitivity affecting nearly 2 million. Reducing chemical exposure to problematic sources, such as fragranced consumer products, is critical to reduce adverse health and societal effects.
Related Medical Conditions
Aspirin "Allergy" of NSAID Allergy
- Are those who have aspirin or NSAID allergy also allergic to Bismuth subsalicylate which are the ingredients of "Pepto- Bismol"? https://www.aaaai.org/ask-the-expert/salicylate
Explaining AERD/NERD and COX-1 Inhibition issues. Explains how aspirin allergy is not a true allergy, and how people are actually affected.
- Is it Possible to be Allergic to Aspirin? AAAAI: https://www.aaaai.org/conditions-and-treatments/library/allergy-library/aspirin-allergy
Explains that it is possible to have a true allergy to aspirin, but only explains the more common version which is a sensitivity. An allergic-type reaction is probably the best way to explain it. Also covers that a person can be sensitive to aspirin, NSAIDS, and tylenol, and another person may only be sensitive to one of them.
- Feinman SE. Beneficial and Toxic Effects of Aspirin. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 1994. (book)
130 pages - Beneficial effects -- History, uses, labeling and poison prevention packaging by Bharat Bhooshan; Prostaglandins, other lipid mediators and the mechanism of action of aspirin by Adam K. Myers, Peter W. Ramwell; Risks -- Aspirin toxicity by Susan E. Feinman; Aspirin and gastrointestinal toxicity by Susan E. Feinman; Aspirin sensitivity in the respiratory system by Donald D. Stevenson; Aspirin-related urticaria and angioedema by Emil J. Bardana, Jr., Anthony Montanaro; Benefit-risk assessment -- Role of aspirin in chemoprevention of cancer and its effect on mutagenicity by Susan E. Feinman; Effects of aspirin on female reproductive function and on in utero development by Irva Hertz-Picciotto; Biochemical manifestations of Reye Syndrome: the role of aspirin by Laurie E. Kilpatrick; Aspirin and the elderly: therapeutic implications by Jacob Karsh; Veterinary use and misuse by Thomas R.B. Barr.
- Speer F. Aspirin allergy: a clinical study. Southern medical journal. 1975;68(3):314-318. Abstract: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1118772.
The following beliefs about aspirin sensitivity are widely held: (1) it usually is accompanied by nasal polyps. (2) It occurs primarily in nonallergic patients. (3) Its most common manifestation is asthma. (4) When it is combined with polyps and asthma (the so-called "aspirin triad"), the prognosis is unfavorable. (5) Polypectomy may precipitate asthma in aspirin sensitive patients. This paper, based on a study of 112 private patients, presents clinical evidence to refute these beliefs. It shows the following: (1) Aspirin allergy is accompanied by polyps in less than 5% of cases (13% of asthma patients). (2) In most cases, patients show well-defined allergy to an inhalant, food, or other drug. (3) Its most common manifestations are urticaria and angiodema, not asthma. (4) The prognosis is favorable, whether or not polyps are present. (5) Polypectomy does not precipitate asthma in aspirin-sensitive patients.
MCAS - Mast Cell Activation Syndrome
- AAAAI, Mast Cell Activation Syndrome (MCAS): https://www.aaaai.org/conditions-and-treatments/related-conditions/mcas.
Dust Mite & Dust Mite Oral Allergy Syndrome
- Portnoy, Jay & Miller, Jeffrey & Williams, P. & Chew, Ginger & Miller, J. & Zaitoun, Fares & Phipatanakul, Wanda & Kennedy, Kevin & Barnes, Charles & Grimes, Carl & Larenas-Linnemann, Désirée & Sublett, James & Bernstein, David & Blessing-Moore, Joann & Khan, David & Lang, David & Nicklas, Richard & Oppenheimer, John & Randolph, Christopher & Wallace, Dana. (2013). Environmental assessment and exposure control of dust mites: a practice parameter. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. 111. 465–507. Full text: https://www.aaaai.org/Aaaai/media/MediaLibrary/PDF%20Documents/Practice%20and%20Parameters/Dustmite-2013.pdf
For reasons that are not clear, many patients with dust mite allergy, and dust mite oral allergy syndrome have coexisting aspirin sensitivity. One study showed a recent review counting 59 of the 135 (43.7%) of the total reported patients as being sensitive to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Research articles supporting that salicylates may improve health
Know your risks, if you're eliminating them from your diet
- Paterson JR, Lawrence JR. Salicylic acid: a link between aspirin, diet and the prevention of colorectal cancer. QJM. 2001;94(8):445–448. doi:10.1093/qjmed/94.8.445. View full article: https://academic.oup.com/qjmed/article/94/8/445/1506881.
If there is a research article you think should be listed here, please let me know.